Table of Contents

2019 Month : October Volume : 8 Issue : 43 Page : 3190-3194

Evaluation of Prevalence of Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorder in Dental Students of Navi Mumbai using the Helkimo Index.

Pratik Chandrakant Malusare1, Bhakti Patil Soman2, Nalini Tomar3, Snehal Patil4, Angela Kurian5

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Pratik Malusare,
Senior Lecturer,
Department of Oral Medicine % Radiology,
G. D. Foundation Y. M. T. Dental College,
Kharghar, Navi Mumbai,
Maharashtra, India.



Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a broad term embracing a number of clinical manifestations which involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles and the teeth. The most common symptoms are facial pain, headache, joint noises and limited mouth opening. Additionally, many signs may be present in these patients, such as tenderness, limited range of movement and deviation of mouth. However, the variation in symptoms among different population and in same patient at different times makes the diagnosis of this clinical entity difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of TMD using Helkimo index in dental students of Navi Mumbai.



A total of 426 dental students participated in the study (331 females; 95 males), with ages ranging between 19 and 26 years. Helkimo anamnestic index (Ai) and clinical dysfunction index (Di) were used to determine signs and symptoms respectively.



Fifty-nine females were affected among symptomatic patients who account for 18% of the female population, whereas only 10 (11%) males were having symptoms. Out of the signs and symptoms present, sound in the TMJ was most common problem (45 students) which accounts for 10 % followed by pain in 15 students (3%) and fatigue in 7 students (2%) in TMJ. On clinical examination, limited mouth opening was found in 40 students which accounts for 9% followed by locked mandible (10 students) 2 %, deviation (15 students) 3 %, and jaw rigidity of mandible (8 students) 2 % during mouth opening.


The overall prevalence of TMJ dysfunction according to Helkimo index in this study was 16 %. TMD and its associated symptoms are common among students of health and science studies. The Helkimo index is a simple, inexpensive, effective and reliable screening index in identifying and classifying temporomandibular joint and TMD symptoms in patients according to the severity of the disorder in a specified population.


Helkimo Index, Temporomandibular Disorder, Temporomandibular Joint

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