Year : 2021 Month : October Volume : 10 Issue : 43 Page : 3720-3725,

Morbidities Related to Obesity- A Short Review of Literature

Lata Kanyal Butola1, Deepika Kanyal2, Archana Dhok3

1, 3 Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
2 Department of Hospital Administration, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


Dr. Lata Kanyal Butola, Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
Email :


Obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, osteoarthritis, multiple cancers, serious mental illness, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Obesity has been reported to promote oxidative stress, as obesity stimulates the penetration and activation of macrophages and monocytes into adipose tissue which, in turn, releases elevated levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Insulin resistance is associated with both type 2 diabetes and obesity. Alteration of lung mechanics in obese patients, including decreased lung capacities, decreased compliance, irregular breathing and perfusion and gas exchange, and respiratory muscle inefficiency, can predispose to increased risk and severity of respiratory infections. Obesity and atherosclerosis pathogenesis have many popular causes. In all cases, lipids, oxidized LDL particles and free fatty acids trigger the inflammatory response and induce the disease. In this review article, we have focused on different morbidities related to obesity.


Key Words

Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Oxidative Stress, Osteoarthritis.


The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in India over the last few decades. About one-third of the adult population in urban India is currently overweight or obese. As a result, the number of people with hypertension and T2DM will rise exponentially.1 Apart from contributing to T2DM and hypertension, obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, osteoarthritis, multiple cancers and serious mental illness.2 Obesity in adults is well known to increase the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease. It is considered a non-communicable disorder that has a major effect on the quality of life (QOL) and leads to different disease conditions and disabilities in the patient's life.3


The present review concludes that obesity leads to different disease conditions, and the best way to treat obesity is to maintain a healthy weight, dietary changes by reducing calories intake, do moderate physical activity to prevent further weight gain or maintain the loss of a modest amount of weight.


  1. Zimmet P. Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted? J Intern Med 2000;247(3):301-10.
  2. Butola ML, Ambad RS, Butola ML, et al. Clinical correlation of oxidative stress andantioxidant in obese individuals. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine 2021;8(1):349-55.
  3. Sirtori A, Brunani A, Villa V, et al. Obesity is a marker of reduction in QoL and disability. Scientific World Journal 2012;2012:167520.
  4. Lata Kanyal MT, Mujawar A. Status of vitamin b12 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients taking metformin based oral hypoglycemic agent-a cross sectional study. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research 2019;1(9):18-26.
  5. Madhura TK, Kanyal L, Mujawar A. Effect of glycemic control on vitamin b12 status in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research 2019;1(9):7-17.
  6. Butola LK, Meshram A, Dhok A, et al. Urticaria due to adverse drug reaction in diabetes: a case presentation. J Evolution Med Dent Sci 2020;9(37):2764-6.
  7. Røder ME, Porte D, Schwartz RS, et al. Disproportionately elevated proinsulin levels reflect the degree of impaired B cell secretory capacity in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83(2):604–8.
  8. Ambad R, Jha RK, Butola LK, et al. Relationship between uric acid and creatinine in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients: Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2020;11(3):3412-7.
  9. Karpe F, Dickmann JR, Frayn KN. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation. Diabetes 2011;60(10):2441–9.
  10. Butola LK, Gusain N. To study the association of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Int J Recent Sci Res 2020;11(10):39749-52.
  11. Jha RK, Kondhalkar A, Jain P, et al. Supplementation of vitamin D in diabetic patients. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine Toxicology 2020;14(4):7016-7.
  12. Jiang SZ, Lu W, Zong XF, et al. Obesity and hypertension. Exp Ther Med 2016;12(4):2395–9.
  13. Coelho M, Oliveira T, Fernandes R. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ. Arch Med Sci 2013;9(2):191–200.
  14. De Mey JGR, Vanhoutte PM. End of the line revised: moving on from nitric oxide to CGRP. Life Sci 2014;118(2):120–8.
  15. Tucker PS, Dalbo VJ, Han T, et al. Clinical and research markers of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease. Biomarkers 2013;18(2):103–15.
  16. Ashburn DD, DeAntonio A, Reed MJ. Pulmonary system and obesity. Crit Care Clin 2010;26(4):597-602.
  17. Laghi F, Tobin MJ. Disorders of the respiratory muscles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008;168(1):10–48.
  18. Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease. Global Strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Executive Summary. [Accessed 2020 Sep,24]. Available from:
  19. Isono S. Obstructive sleep apnea of obese adults: pathophysiology and perioperative airway management. Anesthesiology 2009;110(4):908–921.
  20. Leone N, Courbon D, Thomas F, et al. Lung function impairment and metabolic syndrome: the critical role of abdominal obesity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;179(6):509–16.
  21. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, et al. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2011;11(2):85–97.
  22. Gomez R, Conde J, Scotece M, et al. What's new in our understanding of the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases? Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011;7(9):528–36.
  23. Otero M, Lago R, Lago F, et al. Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1. Arthritis Res Ther 2005;7(3):R581–91.
  24. de Boer TN, van Spil WE, Huisman AM, et al. Serum adipokines in osteoarthritis; comparison with controls and relationship with local parameters of synovial inflammation and cartilage damage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012;20(8):846–53.
  25. Andriacchi TP, Mundermann A. The role of ambulatory mechanics in the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2006;18(5):514–8.
  26. Bennell KL, Hunt MA, Wrigley TV, et al. Role of muscle in the genesis and management of knee osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2008;34(3):731-54.
  27. Roubenoff R. Sarcopenic obesity: does muscle loss cause fat gain? Lessons from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;904:553-7.
  28. [Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A. Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Gastroenterology 2007;132(6):2169-80.
  29. Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001;286(3):327-34.
  30. Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289(14):1799-804.
  31. Bays HE, Toth PP, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Obesity, adiposity, and dyslipidemia: a consensus statement from the National Lipid Association. J Clin Lipidol 2013;7(4):304-83.
  32. Xiao C, Dash S, Morgantini C, et al. Pharmacological targeting of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex: the next frontier in CVD prevention beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. Diabetes 2016;65(7):1767-78.
  33. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients 2013;5(4):1218-40.
  34. Skinner AC, Perrin EM, Moss LA, et al. Cardiometabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 2015;373(14):1307-17.
  35. Miller AA, Budzyn K, Sobey CG. Vascular dysfunction in cerebrovascular disease: mechanisms and therapeutic intervention. Clin Sci (London) 2010;119(1):1-17.
  36. World-Heart-Federation. Stroke.
  37. Liu J, Liao X, Wang N, et al. Serum miR-124 and TNF-a are Biomarkers of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Applied Biotechnology 2012.
  38. Camilleri M, Malhi H, Acosta A. Gastrointestinal complications of obesity. Gastroenterology 2017;152(7):1656-70.
  39. Roberts DL, Dive C, Renehan AG. Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives. Annu Rev Med 2010;61:301–16.
  40. Nock NL, Berger NA. Obesity and cancer: overview of mechanisms. Cancer and energy balance, epidemiology and overview. New York, NY: Springer 2010:129-79.
  41. Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, et al. Body mass index and the incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. lancet 2008;371(9612):569-78.
  42. Adams TD, Stroup AM, Gress RE, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality after gastric bypass surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17(4):796–802.
  43. Schmandt RE, Iglesias DA, Co NN, et al. Understanding obesity and endometrial cancer risk: opportunities for prevention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205(6):518-25.
  44. Ehrmann DA. Polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352(12):1223–36.
  45. Dietl J. Maternal obesity and complications during pregnancy. J Perinat Med 2005;33(2):100–5.
  46. Alvarez-Blasco F, Botella-Carretero JI, San Millan JL, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of the polycystic ovary syndrome in overweight and obese women. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(19):2081-2086.
  47. [47] Butola LK, Kanyal D, Ambad R, et al. Role of omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folate in mental wellbeing-a short review of literature. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2021;15(2):283-8.
  48. Ambad RS, Butola LK, Singh BR, et al. A cross-sectional comparison of minerals in psychiatric disorder. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 2020;24(6):5968-76.
  49. D’Argenio A, Mazzi C, Pecchioli L, et al. Early trauma and adult obesity: is psychological dysfunction the mediating mechanism? Physiol Behav 2009;98(5):543–6.


Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at

Financial or other competing interests: None.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at

How to cite this article

Butola LK, Kanyal D, Dhok A. Morbidities related to obesity- a short review of literature. J Evolution Med Dent Sci 2021;10(43):3720-3725, DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2021/753

Videos :