Table of Contents

2019 Month : October Volume : 8 Issue : 43 Page : 3195-3200

Comparison of Coping Strategies and Psychological Hardiness in Matriarchs and Married Mothers under the Auspices of Supportive Institutions.

Mahdieh Ghale Noee1, Ferasat Ahmadi2, Jamileh Mohtashami3, Elham Shaarbaf Eidgahi4, Ghazal Mohamadi5

1Psychiatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2Student of Psychiatric Nursing, Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 3Associate Professor, Psychiatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 4PhD Student of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. 5Student of Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

References :


Luthar SS, Ciciolla L. Who mothers mommy? Factors that contribute to mothers’ well-being. Developmental Psychology 2015;51(12):1812-23.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Taylor ZE, Conger RD. Promoting strengths and resilience in single‐mother families. Child Development 2017;88(2):350-8.          

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Dziak E, Janzen BL, Muhajarine N. Inequalities in the psychological well-being of employed, single and partnered mothers: the role of psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. International Journal for Equity in Health 2010;9:6.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Robbins LR, McFadden JR. Single mothers: the impact of work on home and the impact of home on work. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education 2003;21(1):1-10.               

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Fluellen JL. Single mothers of young children and continuing education: Walden University 2016.            

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Elliott S, Powell R, Brenton J. Being a good mom: Low-income, Black single mothers negotiate intensive mothering. Journal of Family Issues 2015;36(3):351-70.


Christopher K. Welfare state regimes and mothers' poverty. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 2002;9(1):60-86.


Jayakody R, Chatters LM, Taylor RJ. Family support to single and married African American mothers: the provision of financial, emotional and child care assistance. Journal of Marriage and Family 1993;55(2):261-76.                       

Google Scholar |

Lokshin M, Harris KM, Popkin BM. Single mothers in Russia: household strategies for coping with poverty. World development 2000;28(12):2183-98.             

Google Scholar |

Maldonado LC, Nieuwenhuis R. Family policies and single parent poverty in 18 OECD countries, 1978–2008. Community, Work & Family 2015;18(4):395-415.        

Google Scholar |

Misra J, Moller S, Strader E, et al. Family policies, employment and poverty among partnered and single mothers. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 2012;30(1):113-28.

Google Scholar |

Van de Velde S, Bambra C, Van der Bracht K, et al. Keeping it in the family: the self‐rated health of lone mothers in different European welfare regimes. Sociology of Health & Illness 2014;36(8):1220-42.                 

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Berkman LF, Zheng Y, Glymour MM, et al. Mothering alone: cross-national comparisons of later-life disability and health among women who were single mothers. J Epidemiol Community Health 2015;69(9):865-72.               

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Broussard CA, Joseph AL, Thompson M. Stressors and coping strategies used by single mothers living in poverty. Affilia 2012;27(2):190-204.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Welch A, Hong RM. The vicissitudes of being a single mother in Taiwan: a mental health concern. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2013;20(10):943-50.           N


Sheppard M. Mothers’ coping strategies as child and family care service applicants. British Journal of Social Work 2005;35(5):743-59.                

Google Scholar |

Pearlin LI, Schooler C. The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1978;19(1):2-21.             

Google Scholar | PubMed

Folkman S, Lazarus RS. An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1980;21(3):219-39.       


Folkman S. Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress. Social Science & Medicine 1997;45(8):1207-21.            

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Maddi SR. Relevance of hardiness assessment and training to the military context. Military Psychology 2007;19(1):61-70.         

Google Scholar |

Kobasa SC. Stressful life events, personality and health: an inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1979;37(1):1-11.      

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Kobasa SC, Maddi SR, Zola MA. Type A and hardiness. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1983;6(1):41-51.         

Google Scholar | PubMed

Lang CG, Marilyn Aita M, et al. Weathering the storm of perinatal bereavement via hardiness. Death Studies 2001;25(6):497-512.       

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Atkins R. Depression in Black single mothers: a test of a theoretical model. Western Journal of Nursing Research 2015;37(6):812-30.        

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Maddi SR. The personality construct of hardiness: I. Effects on experiencing, coping and strain. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 1999;51(2):83-94.     

Google Scholar |

Sperlich S, Maina MN. Are single mothers’ higher smoking rates mediated by dysfunctional coping styles? BMC Women's Health 2014;14(1):124.              

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Hilton JM, Desrochers S. The influence of economic strain, coping with roles and parental control on the parenting of custodial single mothers and custodial single fathers. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 2000;33(3-4):55-76.                       

Google Scholar |

Schmied LA, Lawler KA. Hardiness, type A behavior and the stress–illness relation in working women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1986;51(6):1218-23. 

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Subramanian S, Nithyanandan M. Hardiness and optimism as moderators of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in coping negative life events by adolescents. Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, 2007;6(41):1-19.               


Sarani A, Azhari S, Mazlom SR, et al. The relationship between psychological hardiness and coping strategies during pregnancy. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health 2015;3(3):408-17.                                  

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Weinraub M, Wolf BM. Effects of stress and social supports on mother-child interactions in single-and two-parent families. Child development 1983;54(5):1297-311.        

Google Scholar | PubMed

Williams NY. The relationship between stress, coping strategies and social support among single mothers. 2016.               


Segal-Engelchin D. Fear of intimacy and hardiness among single mothers by choice: A comparison to divorced and married mothers. Journal of Family Social Work 2008;11(2):95-116.      

Google Scholar |

Nasaji GS, Paivastegar MA, Hosinian S, et al. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral intervention on coping responses and cognitive strategies for women's emotions. Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2010;4(1):35-43.          


Billings AG, Moos RH. Coping, stress and social resources among adults with unipolar depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1984;46(4):877-91.          

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Sharbaf AHR, Pazhakhzade S. Comparison of stressors and coping strategies in students. J Psychol 2002;6(2).


Chavoshifar J, Tabatabaie RK. Comparative study of stressors and coping styles in adolescents in boarding care centers and adolescents with parents. J Psychol 2000;4(2):169-84.           


Lang A, Goulet C, Amsel R. Lang and Goulet hardiness scale: development and testing on bereaved parents following the death of their fetus/infant. Death Studies 2003;27(10):851-80.                     

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Roshan R, Shakeri R. Evaluation of validity and reliability of scale for students' psychological hardiness. Scientific-Research Journal of Shahed University 2010;17(40):35-52.


Propst R, Pardington A, Ostrum R, et al. Predictors of coping in divorced single mothers. Journal of Divorce 1986;9(3):33-53.


Holloway SD, Machida S. Child-rearing effectiveness of divorced mothers: relationship to coping strategies and social support. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 1991;14(3-4):179-202. 

Google Scholar |

Arditti JA, Madden-Derdich D. No regrets - custodial mothers accounts of the difficulties and benefits of divorce. Contemporary Family Therapy 1995;17(2):229-48.            

Google Scholar |

Ashoori J. Investigation the role of social capital, social support and psychological hardiness in predicting life quality of elderly women. 2018.


Haidarabadi ZG. Effectiveness of reality therapy education to increase happiness and hardiness of mothers who have blind child. Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 2014;3(10):293-300.                  

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Hamid AA. Social change impact on female headed families in Sudanese community case study: Omdurman City: Sudan University of Science and Technology, 2014.


Smith E. The role of parental self-efficacy, hardiness, parenting stress in predicting parenting behaviors. The University of Southern Mississippi, 2017.         

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Schneewind KA. Impact of family processes on control beliefs. In: Bandura A, edr. Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press 1995: p. 114-148.


Bahmani B, Ebrahimi M, Seyadi MS, et al. The role of spiritual attitude in child-rearing in predicting the psychological hardiness of mothers with handicapped children. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal 2015;13(2):34-7.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Gucciardi E, Celasun N, Stewart DE. Single-mother families in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique 2004;95(1):70-3.                     

Google Scholar | PubMed

Robitschek C, Kashubeck S. A structural model of parental alcoholism, family functioning and psychological health: the mediating effects of hardiness and personal growth orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1999;46(2):159-72.        

Google Scholar |

DelGrande A. Role discrepancy, maternal hardiness and depression in mothers of toddlers: a qualitative exploration. The University of New Mexico, 2015.


Ben‐Zur H, Duvdevany I, Lury L. Associations of social support and hardiness with mental health among mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2005;49(1):54-62.     

Google Scholar |

Davoudimoghaddam B, Raheb G, Hosseinzadeh S, et al. The effect of hardiness on personal and social adjustment of female-headed households. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine 2018;16(2):236-42.       

Google Scholar |

Tomassetti-Long VJ. Hardiness, social support, parental stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms in recent service members. University of Mississippi, 2014.                   

Google Scholar |

Gill MJ, Harris SL. Hardiness and social support as predictors of psychological discomfort in mothers of children with autism. Journal of Autism And Developmental Disorders 1991;21(4):407-16.                 

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed